3 edition of Sulfur compounds in crude oil found in the catalog.
Sulfur compounds in crude oil
Bartlesville Energy Research Center.
by U.S. Bureau of Mines, [for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. in Washington]
Written in English
|Statement||by H. T. Rall [and others.|
|Series||United States. Bureau of Mines. Bulletin|
|Contributions||Rall, Harry T., 1900-, API Research Project 48A. Separation and Identification Section.|
|LC Classifications||TN870.5 .B35 1972|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||vi, 187 p.|
|Number of Pages||187|
|LC Control Number||72603257|
R. erythropolis XP was also capable of removing sulfur compounds from Fushun crude oil and Sudanese crude oil. After treatment by resting cells of XP, about % of the total sulfur in Fushun crude oil and % in Sudanese crude oil were removed. The total sulfur content of Fushun crude oil was decreased from 3, ppm to 1, ppm and that. Corrosion by Sulfur Compounds Sulfur compounds play essential role in corrosion of the equipment at oil refining and petrochemical units. For our convenience, we will distinct low-temperature (T oC) corrosion with the participation of sulfur compounds.
The maximum allowable sulfur content in highway diesel fuel in the US was 15 ppmw in and it will be less than 10 ppmw by Sulfur compounds found in crude oil are divided into aliphatic (mercaptans, sulfides, disulfides) and aromatic refractory group (thiophenes derivatives). A total of 30 crude oil samples ranging from to wt % sulfur were employed to train the sulfur prediction model. The ratios of the percent relative abundance (%RA) between the sulfur classes (S x) and the hydrocarbon (HC) class were employed .
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils. The purpose of removing the sulfur, and creating products such as ultra-low-sulfur diesel, is to reduce the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions that result from using those fuels. 2 Composition of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products 7. Hydrocarbons 8. Alkynes Series Aromatic Hydrocarbons Heteroatomic Organic Compounds Non-Hydrocarbons Sulfur Compounds Thiols Oxygen Compounds Nitrogen Compounds Resins and Asphaltenes Salts Carbon.
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The composition of sulfur compounds in the crude oil sample used in this study is distinctly different from most high-sulfur crude oils which originated by TSR. The abundance of sulfur compounds with biomarker skeletons suggests that the sulfuration has occurred in the early diagenesis stage , , , in which olefins reacted with H Cited by: 5.
From Abstract: "This report summarizes a systematic year study of the organic sulfur compounds in Wasson, Texas, crude oil and, to a lesser extent, of three crude oils, that culminated in some individual sulfur-compound identifications.
This report reviews early sulfur literature covering petroleum sulfur compound identifications completed before this study was begun, and cites 58 Cited by: Sulphur Compounds. The Sulphur content of crude oils varies from less than to more than 10 wt% but generally falls in the range 1–4 wt%.
Crude oil with less than 1 wt% sulphur is referred to as low sulphur or sweet, and that with more than 1 wt% sulphur is referred to as high sulphur.
Crude oil also is categorized as “sweet” or “sour” depending on the level of sulfur, which occurs either as elemental sulfur or in compounds such as hydrogen crudes have sulfur contents of percent or less by weight, and sour crudes have sulfur contents of 1 percent or more by weight.
A crude oil which contains at least wt % unstable sulfur compounds is treated in a reaction zone at low temperature to convert at least 50 wt % of the unstable sulfur compounds contained therein. The reaction and removal of sulfur from the crude may be facilitated by contacting the crude oil with a catalytic material in the presence of a stripping by: 2.
Sulfur exists in coal as organic sulfur compounds and as inorganic pyrites. Crude oil and raw natural gas also have high sulfur levels, but nearly all of this sulfur is removed before the fuel is used.
When coal is gasified, the reaction environment is reducing, as opposed to. The poor quality of crude oil currently can obviously result in the high sulfur contents of oil products, which can lead to corrosion, catalyst poisoning, environmental pollution and other negative consequences.
The treatment of high-sulfur crude oil is becoming the focus of research in China’s oil. Crude oils that contain appreciable quantities of hydrogen sulfide or other reactive sulfur compounds are called sour.
Those with less sulfur are called sweet. For refining operations, the acidity of the crude oil is also an important consideration for economic reasons. A number of organic acids may be present in crude oil feedstocks.
Mercaptans are organic sulfur compounds having the general formula of R S H. As stated earlier, amine treating is not effective for the removal of mercaptan.
There are two options for treating mercaptans. In each option, the mercaptans are first oxidized to disulfides. One option, extraction, dissolves the disulfides in caustic and removes them. If a crude oil is buried deeply and for a long time, extensive breaking apart of the carbon chains can occur.
At the same time, most of the sulfur compounds in the oil are broken down. Therefore an ‘old-deep’ crude oil has low viscosity, low density, and very low sulfur content. This combination of properties makes the old-deep crudes the most. Sulfur in crude oil comes generally from the decomposition of organic matter, and with the passage of time and of gradual settling into strata, the sulfur segregates from crude oil in the form of hydrogen sulfide that appears in the associated gas, some portion of sulfur stays with the liquid.
Another theory behind origin of sulfur compounds is the reduction of sulfates by hydrogen by. Desulfurization of crude oil using supercritical water (SCW) is one of the promising nonconventional processes for upgrading oil. SCW is an excellent solvent for high molecular weight organic compounds in crude oils.
Low sulfur content of crude oil is particularly preferred. Sulfur-containing compounds in crude oils vary in nature and concentration with boiling range; with the heaviest fraction, it containing the highest amount of sulfur.
Compounds that contain aliphatic sulfur (sulfides and thiols) have been found easier to remove than compounds containing aromatic sulfur (thiophenic compounds), which are present. In crude petroleum, sulphur exists as a non-hydrocarbon constituent in different concentrations.
Petroleum crudes obtained from different oilfields contain different quantities and types of sulphur compounds. Generally in heavier crude oil, the proportion and complexity of the sulphur compounds is usually greater than the lighter crudes.
atoms). Other compounds in crude oil contain not only carbon and hydrogen, but also small (but important) amounts of other (“hetero”-) elements – most notably sulfur, as well as nitrogen and certain metals (e.g., nickel, vanadium, etc.).
The compounds that make up crude oil range from the smallest and simplest hydrocarbon molec ule – CH.
Get this from a library. Sulfur compounds in crude oil. [H T Rall; Bartlesville Energy Research Center.; American Petroleum Institute. Research Project ]. The determination of water content in crude oil is important for oil transportation, refining, and trade.
However, the sensitivity and accuracy of the conventional azeotropic distillation (AD) method are inadequate. Karl Fischer titration methods may give false high results because of the reducing sulfur compounds in crude oil.
The present study developed an azeotropic distillation Karl. Sulfur (in British English, sulphur) is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number It is abundant, multivalent and normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S tal sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature.
Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth. crude oils. Generally, crudes with sulfur contents above % by weight are considered sour. Most oils contain from % to 3% sulfur.
Volatile sulfur compounds including hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and some mercaptans are removed prior to the oil reaching the refinery6. The refinery is left to deal with a wide range of sulfur compounds including. “Sweet” crude oil has a lower concentration of sulfur compounds while “sour” crude oil has a higher concentration of sulfur compounds.
But that isn’t where the classification of oil stops. First published on 5th December Sulfur compounds represent one of the most common impurities present in the crude oil.
Sulfur in liquid fuel oil leads directly to the emission of SO 2 and sulfate particulate matter that endangers public health and community property; and reduces the life of the engine due to rmore, the sulfur compounds in the exhaust gases of diesel.Explain why fossil fuels such as crude oils contain varying amounts of nitrogen and sulfur.
1 Educator Answer A compound is found to contain % iron and % sulfur.Several sulfur-based compounds are available in refined products or petroleum. Examples are listed in Figure 3. Desulfurization is a chemical process for the removal of sulfur from petroleum. It involves the removal of sulfur from a molecule and/or the removal of sulfur compounds from oil.